Subsurface Displacement of Water, Liquids and Earthquakes go Hand in Hand....even thounsands of miles.
Earthquakes affect our Earth's intricate plumbing system—whether you live near the notoriously active San Andreas Fault in California, or far from active faults in Florida, an earthquake near or far can affect you and the water resources you depend on.
Hydrogeologic responses to earthquakes have been known for decades, and have occurred both close to, and thousands of miles from earthquake epicenters.
Water wells have become turbid, dry or begun flowing, discharge of springs and ground water to streams has increased and new springs have formed, and well and surface-water quality have become degraded as a result of earthquakes.
Ground-water systems are mechanically coupled to the rocks and sediments in which they exist.
In addition to hydrogeologic responses to earthquakes, hydrogeologic changes may cause earthquakes or volcanic events. Earthquakes can be induced by the filling of surface reservoirs, or by annual or shorter-term fluctuations in reservoir levels, as is the case in most shallow earthquakes in the Aswan, Egypt area (Awad and Mizoue, 1995).
Earthquakes also can be induced by the injection or withdrawal of fluids through wells, as was illustrated by the earthquakes caused by injection of waste fluid from munitions production at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in the 1960s (Healy and others, 1968).
The exact mechanism linking hydrogeologic changes and earthquakes is not fully understood.
At distances of hundreds or thousands of miles, the offset can often be directly related to the amount of deformation produced by movement on the earthquake fault (Roeloffs, 1988).